IVF explained

IVF can be defined as the fertilization of human eggs by spermatozoa in the laboratory and the transfer of the resulting embryo back to the expectant mother's uterus.

The first baby to be born out of IVF – Louise Browne in England : Dr. R.G. Edwards and Patrick Steptoe, July 1978.

Two main varieties of IVF technology : IVF ans ICSI

Chronology of IVF (ART) Research in INDIA

1978 October: Dr. Subhas Mukherjee & his team. The birth of 'Durga'.

1982-1986: Kolkata - Dr. B. N. Chakravorty, Dr. S. Ghosh Dastidar, Birth of Imran in November 1986.

1982-1985: Pioneered the Introduction of IUI as a novel ART treatment of human infertility by Dr. S. Ghosh Dastidar

1983-1986: Bombay - Dr. I. Hinduja, Dr. Anandkumar Birth of Harsha (July 1986)

1992: Kolkata - 1st GIFT Baby, Dr. S. Ghosh Dastidar ; Dr. K. Ghosh Dastidar

1995: Kolkata - 1st ICSI ZIFT Baby, Dr. S. Ghosh Dastidar ; Dr. K. Ghosh Dastidar

1995: Mumbai - ICSI Baby, Dr. Firuza Parikh

Ultrasonography in IVF - Pioneering contribution of Dr. Kakoli Ghosh Dastidar

  • In the IVF programme, in Kolkata, Dr. Kakoli Ghosh Dastidar introduced Trans vaginal sonography in 1987 and later (1989), colour-doppler study for endometrium and fetal studies.

  • She has 35 publications in international and national journals. Her 2 books on step by step USG were amongst the first few books in India.

  • Currently she is the Head of USG and senior consultant reproductive medicine at G.D. Institute for Fertility Research (GDIFR), Kolkata.

 Major steps of ART

  • Controlled ovarian stimulation and monitoring to produce multiple follicles
  • Oocyte retrieval (earlier laparoscopic, since'87- USG guided)
  • IVF embryology laboratory -
    • Identification of oocyte
    • Tissue culture media & sperm washing techniques
    • In vitro fertilization of oocytes using washed capacitated spermatozoa (10000-20000 sperm per oocyte) ...... IVF
    • Fertilization of oocyte by a single spermatozoa using a micromanipulation system ...... ICSI
  • Documentation of fertilization (2-PN examination)
  • Embryo culture for 2-4 days and finally embryo transfer (Day 3 or Blastocyst)

 IVF Breakthrough

  • After many failures, Dr. Dastidar achieved fertilization of oocyte and its subsequent cleavage to 6-8 cell stage in June/July'83.
  • Following embryo transfer, a pregnancy occurred in September'83. Unfortunately, this pregnancy ended in abortion at around 10 weeks.
  • It was a major break through indicating the feasibility of IVF as a clinical method to treat tubal factor infertility.
  • Dr. Dastidar and Dr. B. N. Chakraborty jointly presented this data in 3rd World Congress on IVF, Helsinki, Finland, May 1984.
  • This was the 1st report of successful IVF and embryo transfer resulting in pregnancy in human from India in any World Congress. (May'84)

 End of Struggle

Re-organisation of IVF Laboratory
  • Initial success in IVF resulting in pregnancy encouraged us.
  • Relatively improved lab. developed in C.I.T. Road
  • More number of IVF attempts done
Our Final Achievement November, 1986
  • A healthy male baby was born following IVF (Still using improvised tissue culture chamber)
  • In the same year, the Bombay group also succeeded in IVF just 3 months before us (Dr. Hinduja & Anandkumar)


 ICSI – major breakthrough in Assisted Reproductive Technology after IVF

Till 1993 there was no treatment available for severe male factor infertility with very low sperm count and motility, not even by IVF. Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) which means fertilizing an egg by micro injection with a single viable spermatozoa in the laboratory, made it possible, extreme male factor could be treated successfully.
Ref : Palermo et al, 1993, Brussels, Belgium.
Dr. Dastidar initiated one of India’s first two ICSI programs in Kolkata in January 1994, and delivered first ICSI-ZIFT baby in India in March 1995.

+ MII Oocyte is denuded from sorrounding cumulus cells
+ Single spermatozoa is immobilized and aspirated in micro-injecting needle
+ Sperm injected directly into ooplasm using a micro needle and a micro manipulator under direct vision of inverted microscope with 3D image optics
+ Rest of the procedure like confirmation of fertilization by Pronucleus (PN) examination, embryo culture are same as IVF